How did people in conflict-induced crisis build resilience?

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  anti-arab Whereas anti-Semitism is no longer socially acceptable, at least among the educated classes, no such social sanctions exist for anti-Arabism. William A. Dorman. Nazi book burning
  Antisemitism is prejudice against, hatred of, or discrimination against Jews as a national, ethnic, religious or racial group. Burning of Columbia, SC, 1865. During Reconstruction, South Carolina was a Southern state whose legislature members included ex-slaves.
  The Bellamy salute was derived from the Roman salute. Sometimes known as the flag salute, it accompanied the American Pledge of Allegiance. During the 1920s and 1930s, Italian fascists and Nazis adopted a salute which had the same form.

The internment of Japanese Americans in the United States was the forced relocation and incarceration during World War II of between 110,000 and 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry.

  Suez Crisis, 1956. Belligerents: Israel, UK, France vs Egypt Negro drinking at Colored water cooler in streetcar terminal, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
  Ku Klux Klansmen and women at a cross lighting on November 12th, 2005. Man representing the Freedman's Bureau stands between armed groups of Euro-Americans and Afro-Americans.
  Graffiti on Israeli West Bank barrier "Islam is peace".

During the 2006 Israel–Lebanon conflict, Israel admitted that it had used phosphorus shells "against military targets in open ground" in south Lebanon.


On the morning of September 23, 1957, nine African-American high school students faced an angry mob of over 1,000 White Americans protesting integration in front of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.

Little Rock, 1959. Rally, at state capitol, protesting the integration of Central High School. Protesters carry US flags and signs reading "Race Mixing is Communism" and "Stop the Race Mixing March of the Anti-Christ”.

  Graffiti on Israeli West Bank barrier "Love Palestine".

Laura and L.D. Nelson were an African-American mother and son who were lynched on May 25, 1911, near Okemah, Oklahoma. It was common practice at the time to turn lynching photographs into postcards and sell them in local stores as souvenirs.